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HomeNanotechnologyHyaluronic acid-coated Bi:Cu2O: an H2S-responsive agent for colon most cancers with focused...

Hyaluronic acid-coated Bi:Cu2O: an H2S-responsive agent for colon most cancers with focused supply and enhanced photothermal efficiency | Journal of Nanobiotechnology


Preparation and characterization of Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs

The Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs have been ready via a one-pot technique. After centrifugal purification, the crystalline construction, morphology, composition, and hydrodynamic dimension of the obtained Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs have been characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), elemental mapping, Fourier rework infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and dynamic mild scattering (DLS). The diffraction peaks of the obtained Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs at 36.2, 42.5, and 61.6 levels are nicely matched with the (111), (200), and (220) crystal faces of cubic Cu2O (JCPDS card NO:77–0199, Fig. 1A), respectively, indicating that the obtained NPs have been cubic crystals. As proven within the SEM picture (Fig. 1B), the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs had uniform spherical morphologies with particle sizes of roughly 63.09 nm (Extra file 1: Determine S1).

Fig. 1
figure 1

Characterization of Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs. A XRD sample (purple line). B SEM picture. C TEM picture and elemental mapping pictures. D FT-IR spectrum (purple line). E DLS dimension distribution of the ready Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs. The blue traces in A are the diffraction peaks of cubic Cu2O (JCPDS card NO:77–0199). The blue line in D is the FT-IR spectrum of HA

The fundamental mapping picture (Fig. 1C) demonstrates that Bi, Cu, and O have been uniformly distributed in every NP, indicating that Bi was homogeneously doped within the cubic Cu2O construction. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) outcomes additional demonstrated the existence of Bi within the obtained NPs (Extra file 1: Figures S2 and S3). As proven in Fig. 1D, the FT-IR spectrum of HA confirmed a peak akin to the C–H single bond at 2882 cm− 1 and a typical amide peak at 1655 cm− 1 [36, 37]. These two peaks have been retained within the spectrum of Bi:Cu2O@HA, indicated that HA was efficiently loaded onto the NPs. Moreover, the zeta potential of Cu2O@HA and Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs knowledgeable the coating of HA on the floor of the obtained NPs (Extra file 1: Determine S4). The hydrodynamic dimension of the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs decided by DLS was 130.9 nm, a lot bigger than the sizes measured by SEM and TEM (Fig. 1E). This can be because of the robust hydrophilicity of HA. These characterization outcomes exhibit that hydrophilic Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs have been efficiently ready. Subsequently, the scale and polydispersity index (PDI) modifications of Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs have been studied in water, PBS and serum, respectively (Extra file 1: Determine S5). In response to the outcomes, the hydrodynamic diameter didn’t change considerably inside every week, indicating that Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs has good dispersion stability.

H2S-responsive efficiency

To discover the H2S-responsive efficiency of the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs, NaHS was used to simulate endogenous H2S (Fig. 2A), and Cu2O@HA NPs ready utilizing the identical technique because the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs however with out Bi doping have been used as a management (Extra file 1: Figures S6–S9). The crystal construction, morphology, absorption, and photothermal efficiency after response with NaHS have been investigated. The SEM picture in Fig. 2B reveals that after response with NaHS, the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs exhibited a spherical morphology with a median diameter of roughly 65 nm, barely bigger than the diameter of the preliminary Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs, in settlement with a earlier report [38]. As well as, the XRD peaks of the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs after response with NaHS at 31.5, 49.5, and 59.4 levels have been nicely matched with the (103), (110), and (116) crystal faces of hexagonal CuS (JCPDS card NO: 99 − 0037, Fig. 2C), respectively, indicating the formation of CuS.

Fig. 2
figure 2

H2S-responsive efficiency of the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs. A Schematic diagram of the response of Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs with NaHS. B SEM picture. XRD sample of Bi:Cu2O@HA after response with NaHS. D Absorption of Cu2O@HA and Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs earlier than and after response with NaHS. E Plots of ΔT vs. time for Cu2O@HA + NaHS and Bi:Cu2O@HA + NaHS beneath 808-nm laser irradiation (1 W/cm2). F Plots of ΔT vs. time for Bi:Cu2O@HA (0.5 mM) + NaHS (4 mM) throughout six cycles of irradiation (1 W/cm2)

To research whether or not doping with Bi enhanced the NIR absorption of Cu2O, we measured the absorption of the Cu2O@HA and Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs earlier than and after response with NaHS. As proven in Fig. 2D, each the Cu2O@HA and Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs exhibited stronger absorption within the NIR area after response with NaHS in contrast with earlier than response. Notably, the NIR absorption, particularly on the laser wavelength of 808 nm (Extra file 1: Determine S10A, B), of Bi-doped Cu2O@HA after response with NaHS was barely improved in contrast with that of Cu2O@HA, indicating that doping with Bi has the potential to reinforce the photothermal efficiency of Cu2O uncovered to H2S. The photothermal performances of the Cu2O@HA and Bi:Cu2O@HA after response with NaHS have been in contrast primarily based on the temperature modifications (ΔT) of dispersions of the NPs in water beneath irradiation by an 808-nm laser. As proven in Fig. 2E, the ΔT values of Cu2O@HA and Bi:Cu2O@HA respectively elevated by 13.2 and 16.5 °C after response with NaHS, suggesting that the photothermal efficiency of Cu2O@HA was improved by doping with Bi. The ΔT of Bi:Cu2O@HA explored by completely different dispersion focus and laser energy density additional suggests the nice efficiency (Extra file 1: Determine S11A–D). The photothermal conversion effectivity additionally elevated barely in comparison with the beforehand reported effectivity for Cu2O (Extra file 1: Determine S12A, B) [12]. Moreover, after six irradiation and cooling cycles (Fig. 2F), the utmost ΔT of the Bi:Cu2O@HA dispersion after response with NaHS hardly modified, indicating the nice photothermal stability of Bi:CuS@HA. The above outcomes point out that Bi doping is an efficient technique to reinforce the photothermal efficiency of H2S-responsive Cu2O@HA NPs.

CT imaging and tumor-targeting efficiency

Contemplating the nice X-ray attenuation properties, the CT imaging efficiency of the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs was investigated utilizing the business Iohexol CT distinction agent as a management. As proven in Fig. 3A, because the concentrations of Iohexol and Bi:Cu2O@HA elevated, the CT pictures of each brokers turned brighter, indicating a gradual improve within the CT alerts. Moreover, the CT imaging efficiency of the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs was superior to that of Iohexol on the identical focus. The linear correlations between the CT alerts and the concentrations of Iohexol and Bi:Cu2O@HA additional exhibit that the CT imaging efficiency of Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs was higher than that of Iohexol on the identical focus (Fig. 3B). The above outcomes recommend that Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs can be utilized as an agent for CT imaging.

Fig. 3
figure 3

 A, B In vitro CT pictures and corresponding linear correlations of the CT alerts with the concentrations of Bi:Cu2O@HA NP and Iohexol. C In vitro CT pictures (inset) and corresponding plots of the CT alerts vs. focus for CT26 cells within the Bi:Cu2O@HA and block teams. D, E In vivo CT pictures and corresponding CT values on the tumor websites of tumor-bearing mice after injection within the Bi:Cu2O@HA and block teams. Knowledge are offered as means ± SDs (n = 3). *p < 0.1, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001

Primarily based on the nice CT imaging efficiency and the power of HA to focus on the extremely expressed CT44 receptors on the surfaces of colon most cancers cells, the focusing on potential of the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs was explored each in vitro and in vivo utilizing CT imaging. Two teams of experiments have been established: one with the Bi:Cu2O@HA group and one other with a block group. As proven in Fig. 3C, the CT picture of the CT26 colon most cancers cells after incubation with Bi:Cu2O@HA was brighter than that of the block group on the identical focus (inset of Fig. 3C). The corresponding sign of the Bi:Cu2O@HA group was additionally a lot stronger than that of the block group, suggesting that HA considerably enhanced the tumor cell focusing on potential. The CT pictures of tumor-bearing mice have been collected after the intravenous injection of Bi:Cu2O@HA to judge the tumor-targeting efficiency in vivo.

As proven in Fig. 3D, the colours of the CT pictures on the tumor websites (purple circles) earlier than injection have been comparable within the Bi:Cu2O@HA and block teams. After intravenous administration, the tumor websites within the CT pictures of the mice within the Bi:Cu2O@HA group regularly turned brighter and reached most brightness at 8 h after injection. As compared, the tumor websites within the CT pictures of mice within the block group have been darker on the identical time factors. The corresponding alerts on the tumor websites have been a lot increased within the Bi:Cu2O@HA group than within the block group (Fig. 3E). These outcomes additional point out that the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs exhibited good focusing on efficiency for colon most cancers in vivo since HA can goal the expressed receptors on most cancers.

Biocompatibility

Cytotoxicity, hemolysis, and routine blood biochemical index analyses have been carried out to analyze the biocompatibility of the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs. First, the cytotoxicity of the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs was assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mouse colon most cancers CT26 cells by MTT assay. The cell survival charges of each the HUVEC and CT26 cells have been greater than 80%, even at a focus of 80 µg/mL (Fig. 4A, B), indicating that the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs had low cytotoxicity. In comparison with water (constructive management), the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs didn’t trigger important harm to the erythrocyte membranes (Fig. 4C), much like the PBS group (adverse management). Extra importantly, the routine blood indexes of the mice after the tail vein injection of Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs for 36 h weren’t considerably completely different than these of mice within the management group, indicating the nice biocompatibility of Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs in vivo (Fig. 4D). These outcomes exhibit that the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs exhibited good biocompatibility and nice potential for additional utility in vivo.

Fig. 4
figure 4

Biocompatibility of Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs. A, B Viability of CT26 cells and HUVEC cells incubated with completely different concentrations of Bi:Cu2O@HA for 12 and 24 h, respectively. C Hemolytic impact of Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs. D Hematological assay knowledge of mice earlier than (Management) and after (Bi:Cu2O@HA) intravenous administration of Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs

In vitro PTT

To discover the photothermal impact of Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs after triggering by H2S, the CT26 cells have been stained with Calcein-AM (AM) and propidium iodide (PI) to visualise the therapeutic impact, whereas the apoptosis charge of the cells was evaluated by movement cytometry. The cells within the PBS, NPs, and NPs + NaHS teams have been incubated with PBS, NPs, and NPs + NaHS media, respectively, whereas the cells within the PBS + laser, NPs + laser, and NPs + NaHS + laser teams have been moreover subjected to laser irradiation. First, the CT26 cells have been stained with Calcein AM (inexperienced, dwell cells) and propidium iodide (PI; purple, useless cells), as illustrated in Fig. 5A. Within the PBS and NPs teams together with the PBS + laser and NPs + laser teams, purple fluorescence was negligible, indicating that these remedies didn’t trigger cell demise. Though CuS was generated within the NPs + NaHS group, only some cells have been noticed with purple fluorescence, indicated that the NPs + NaHS therapy couldn’t induce cell demise with out laser irradiation. In distinction, most cells within the NPs + NaHS + laser group confirmed purple fluorescence, indicating the nice photothermal therapy impact of the H2S-activated Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs beneath 808-nm laser irradiation. The apoptosis of CT26 cells in several teams was quantified by movement cytometry (Extra file 1: Determine S13). The apoptosis charges of cells within the PBS, PBS + laser, NPs, NPs + laser, NPs + NaHS, and NPs + NaHS + laser teams have been 2.96%, 2.50%, 4.12%, 4.30%, 1.70%, and 54.21%, respectively (Fig. 5B), additional indicating that the H2S-activated Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs successfully induced apoptosis in most cancers cells beneath 808-nm laser irradiation. Subsequent, we studied the in vitro cytotoxic impact of various teams utilizing MTT assay and drawn the identical conclusion (Extra file 1: Determine S14). To research the photothermal impact of H2S-activated Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs beneath 808-nm laser irradiation on cell migration, wound-healing assays have been carried out utilizing CT26 colon most cancers cells. After scratching, the cells within the PBS, NPs, and NPs + NaHS teams have been incubating with PBS, NPs, and NPs + NaHS media for various occasions, whereas the PBS + laser, NPs + laser, and NPs + NaHS + laser teams moreover obtained 5 min of irradiation with an 808-nm laser.

Fig. 5
figure 5

In vitro PTT impact. A Confocal laser scanning microscopy pictures of CT26 cells stained by Calcein AM (inexperienced colour) and PI (purple colour). B Apoptotic indexes for various teams. Knowledge are offered as means ± SDs (n = 3). ****p < 0.0001. C Images of the scratched areas after therapy in several teams

As proven in Fig. 5C, the CT26 cells within the PBS, NPs, NPs + NaHS, PBS + laser, NPs + laser, and NPs + NaHS teams nonetheless confirmed motion within the scratched space, suggesting that these remedies didn’t considerably have an effect on the migratory potential of CT26 cells. In comparison with the opposite teams, the cells within the NPs + NaHS + laser group barely moved towards the scratched space, indicating that PTT primarily based on the H2S-activated Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs beneath 808-nm laser irradiation will clearly inhibit the migration of CT26 cells (Extra file 1: Determine S15). The above outcomes point out that PTT primarily based on Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs triggered by H2S can each promote cell apoptosis and inhibit cell migration. Thus, the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs present promise as a nano-agent for the therapy of colon most cancers.

In vivo PTT

To verify the tumor ablation impact of the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs in vivo, experiments have been carried out in CT26 tumor-bearing mice. First, the mice within the PBS + laser and NPs + laser teams have been intravenously injected with PBS and Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs, respectively, whereas the mice within the NPs + AOAA + laser and NPs + SAM + laser teams have been additionally pretreated with AOAA (aminooxyacetic acid, an endogenous H2S inhibitor) and SAM (S-adenosyl-L-methionine, an endogenous H2S promoter), respectively, earlier than injection with Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs. In response to the CT imaging outcomes, the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs reached the utmost enrichment degree within the tumor at 6 h after injection. Due to this fact, PTT was carried out at 6 h after injection, and the temperature modifications within the tumor area have been monitored utilizing a thermal digital camera. As proven in Fig. 6A and B, the colour of the tumor websites within the PBS + laser, NPs + laser, and NPs + AOAA + laser teams didn’t change clearly after 5 min of laser irradiation, and the temperature elevated from 34.75 to 36.8 °C, 39.98 °C, and 38.65 °C, respectively. In distinction, an apparent colour change was noticed within the NPs + SAM + laser group, and the temperature elevated to 47.23 °C. The big distinction between the NPs + SAM + laser group and the opposite teams demonstrates that the photothermal exercise of Bi:Cu2O@HA was solely activated by the endogenous H2S within the colon most cancers tumor. After laser therapy, a tumor tissue was randomly dissected from every group, and the necrosis and apoptosis within the tumor tissue have been evaluated by H&E and TUNEL staining. H&E staining (Fig. 6C) confirmed that the tumor tissues within the PBS + laser, NPs + laser, and NPs + AOAA + laser teams weren’t clearly broken beneath laser irradiation. In distinction, a considerable amount of cell necrosis was noticed within the tumors within the NPs + SAM + laser group, and the corresponding constructive cell charge was 65.67% (Fig. 6D). In response to the TUNEL staining pictures (Fig. 6E), the tumor slices from the PBS + laser, NPs + laser, and NPs + AOAA + laser teams confirmed nearly no inexperienced fluorescence (useless cells), indicating that solely a small variety of cells have been apoptotic In distinction, a big space of inexperienced fluorescence was noticed within the NPs + SAM + laser group, suggesting that the photothermal impact of the activated Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs killed cells in vivo. The corresponding cell apoptosis charges within the PBS + laser, NPs + laser and NPs + AOAA + laser, and NPs + SAM + laser teams have been 8.86%, 6.54%, 6.98%, and 58.09%, respectively (Fig. 6F), in settlement with the H&E staining outcomes (Fig. 6D). The above outcomes exhibit that the photothermal exercise of the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs will be triggered by the overexpressed H2S in colon most cancers cells, and that the NPs exhibit a wonderful photothermal therapeutic impact, suggesting that the NPs are a promising candidate for colon most cancers remedy.

Fig. 6
figure 6

In vivo PTT. A, B Thermal pictures and corresponding temperature modifications of the mice in several teams beneath laser irradiation. C, D Images of H&E-stained world and native tumor slices and the corresponding necrosis charges for various teams. E, F Fluorescence pictures of TUNEL-stained world and native tumor slices and the corresponding apoptosis charges for various teams

To guage the therapeutic impact of Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs in vivo, the state of subsistence and tumor quantity of the mice have been monitored for 15 d. As demonstrated in Fig. 7A, the tumors of the mice within the PBS + laser, NPs + laser, and NPs + AOAA + laser teams continued to develop quickly, whereas the tumors of the mice utterly disappeared after 15 d of therapy (Extra file 1: Determine S16). The corresponding modifications within the relative tumor volumes for every group revealed comparable outcomes (Fig. 7B), indicating that solely the activated, photothermally lively Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs might remove the tumors. To guage the long-term biocompatibility of the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs in vivo, the physique weights of the mice in all teams have been monitored for 15 d. Subsequently, one of many cured mice within the NPs + SAM + laser group was euthanized, and its major organs have been dissected for comparability with these of regular mice to additional consider the long-term biocompatibility of Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs in vivo. As proven in Fig. 7C, the physique weight of the mice didn’t change considerably throughout the therapy course of, indicating that the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs didn’t have an effect on the conventional life actions of the mice or have apparent poisonous or unwanted effects. Notably, in distinction to the conventional mice, the H&E-stained sections of the cured mouse confirmed no apparent indicators of tissue necrosis (Fig. 7D), indicating that the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs have good long-term biocompatibility in vivo. These outcomes recommend that the Bi:Cu2O@HA NPs present glorious potential for the PTT of colon most cancers.

Fig. 7
figure 7

PTT impact in vivo. A Photographs of CT26 tumor-bearing mice collected after 15 days of therapy. B, C Relative tumor quantity and physique weights in mice throughout 15 days of therapy in several teams. Knowledge are offered as means ± SDs (n = 4). ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001. D H&E staining pictures of main organs from regular and cured mice

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